NANOMAX complements the well established ex situ observation of stable nanostructures with the direct and real time in situ observation of their formation under controlled conditions. The project associates specialists (from the Ecole Polytechnique and C2N) in the epitaxial growth of nano-objects (from the experimental and theoretical points of view) and of the ex situ analysis of these structures at the atomic scale. The goal is to investigate fundamental issues of solid phase nucleation and growth (from a supersaturated vapour phase) that cannot be solved by ex situ observation (due to the evolution of nanostructures during post-growth cooling). The pilot project in NANOMAX is MBE of III-V semiconductor nanowires. Other investigations include chemical vapour deposition of various nano-objects ranging from semiconductor quantum dots to carbon nanotubes. NANOMAX is the first ever attempt to implement MBE in a TEM column. Moreover, its goal is real atomic resolution during growth, which has never been achieved so far. NANOMAX thus implies significant technical developments, regarding both hardware and software, such as the implementation of effusion cells in the vicinity of a modified objective lens and stage.